Glossary

GENERAL TERMS
Sl. No Term Meaning
1 Al Dente Italian term used to describe pasta that is cooked until it offers a slight resistance to the bite.
2 Appetizers Small tasty bits of food which are served before meals
3 Bake To cook by dry heat, usually in the oven.
4 Barbecue Usually used generally to refer to grilling done outdoors or over an open charcoal or wood fire.
5 Baste Tu brush the food with some fat during cooking in the oven, which helps in keeping the dish moist and soft
6 Batter Any mixture of flour and a liquid which is breaten or stirred to make a pouring consistency
7 Beat To mix rapidly in order to make a mixture smooth and light by incorporating as much air as possible.
8 Blanch To remove skin by dipping in hot water for a couple of minutes (ex: blanch tomato)
9 Boil To heat a liquid until bubbles break continually on the surface.
10 Broil To cook on a grill under strong, direct heat.
11 Caramelize To heat sugar in order to turn it brown and give it a special taste.
12 Clarify To separate and remove solids from a liquid, thus making it clear
13 Deglaze To dissolve the thin glaze of juices and brown bits on the surface of a pan in which food has been fried, sauteed or roasted. To do this, add liquid and stir and scrape over high heat, thereby adding flavor to the liquid for use as a sauce.
14 Degrease To remove fat from the surface of stews, soups, or stock. Usually cooled in the refrigerator so that fat hardens and is easily removed.
15 Dice To cut into small neat cubes (1/4 inch or less)
16 Dissolve To cause a dry substance to pass into solution in a liquid.
17 Dough A mixture of flour liquid etc, kneaded together into a stiff paste or roll (used in chapati, roti, paratha, tortilla, pastry etc
18 Drain To remove liquid from food
19 Dredge To sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substance.
20 Drizzle To sprinkle drops of liquid lightly over food in a casual manner
21 Dust To sprinkle food with dry ingredients. Use a strainer or a jar with a perforated cover, or try the good, old-fashioned way of shaking things together in a paper bag.
22 Flake To break lightly into small pieces.
23 Fold To incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream into another substance without releasing air bubbles.
24 Fry To cook in hot fat.
25 Garnish To decorate a dish both to enhance its appearance and to provide a flavorful foil. Parsley, lemon slices, raw vegetables, chopped chives, and other herbs are all forms of garnishes.
26 Glaze To cook with a thin sugar syrup cooked to crack stage; mixture may be thickened slightly.
27 Grate To rub on a grater that separates the food in various sizes of bits or shreds.
28 Gratin From the French word for “crust.” Term used to describe any oven-baked dish–usually cooked in a shallow oval gratin dish–on which a golden brown crust of bread crumbs, cheese or creamy sauce is form.
29 Grill To cook on a grill over intense heat.
30 Grind To process solids by hand or mechanically to reduce them to tiny particles.
31 Knead To work and press dough with the palms of the hands or mechanically, to develop the gluten in the flour.
32 Lukewarm Neither cool nor warm; approximately body temperature.
33 Marinate To soak food in a mixture for sometime so that the flavour of the mixture penetrates into the food.
34 Meuniere Dredged with flour and sauteed in butter.
35 Minced Very finely chopped
36 Mix To combine ingredients usually by stirring.
37 Pan-Broil To cook uncovered in a hot fry pan, pouring off fat as it accumulates.
38 Pan-Fry To cook in small amounts of fat.
39 Parboil To boil until partially cooked; to blanch. Usually this procedure is followed by final cooking in a seasoned sauce.
40 Pare To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.
41 Peel To remove the peels from vegetables or fruits.
42 Pickle To preserve vegetables, and fruits in brine.
43 Pinch A pinch is the trifling amount you can hold between your thumb and forefinger.
44 Pit To remove pits from fruits.
45 Planked Cooked on a thick hardwood plank.
46 Plump To soak dried fruits in liquid until they swell.
47 Poach To cook very gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.
48 Puree A smooth mixture obtained by rubbing cooked vegetable (ex spinach) or blanched tomatoes through sieve
49 Reduce To boil down to reduce the volume.
50 Refresh To run cold water over food that has been parboiled, to stop the cooking process quickly.
51 Render To make solid fat into liquid by melting it slowly.
52 Roast To cook by dry heat in an oven.
53 Saute To toss and make light brown in shallow fat (oil, butter, clarifiedd butter etc)
54 Scald To bring to a temperature just below the boiling point.
55 Scallop To bake a food, usually in a casserole, with sauce or other liquid. Crumbs often are sprinkled over.
56 Score To cut narrow grooves or gashes partway through the outer surface of food.
57 Sear To brown very quickly by intense heat. This method increases shrinkage but develops flavor and improves appearance.
58 Sift To put one or more dry ingredients through a sieve or sifter.
59 Simmer To cook slowly in liquid over low heat at a temperature of about 180°. The surface of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by slowly rising bubbles.
60 Skim To remove impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of a liquid during cooking, thereby resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.
61 Steam To cook in steam in a pressure cooker, deep well cooker, double boiler, or a steamer made by fitting a rack in a kettle with a tight cover. A small amount of boiling water is used, more water being added during steaming process, if necessary.
62 Steep To extract color, flavor, or other qualities from a substance by leaving it in water just below the boiling point.
63 Sterilize To destroy micro organisms by boiling, dry heat, or steam.
64 Stew To simmer slowly in a small amount of liquid for a long time.
65 Stir To mix ingredients with a circular motion until well blended or of uniform consistency.
66 Toss To combine ingredients with a lifting motion.
67 Truss To secure poultry with string or skewers, to hold its shape while cooking.
68 Whip To beat rapidly to incorporate air and produce expansion, as in heavy cream or egg whites.

 

VEGETABLE CUTTING METHODS
Chopping To cut into small pieces
Ex: Potato, tomato etc
Shredding To cut into thin, long pieces
Ex: Cabbage etc
Dicing To cut into very small squares
Diagonal Slices To cut in a slanting manner
Slicing To cut completely through the vegetable to get slices
Julienne To cut into thin matchstick like pieces
Ex: Carrot and Cucumber etc
Rings and Half rings To cut vegetable widthwise into rounds
Ex: Onion, Capsicum etc
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